Desalination of deep groundwater for freshwater supplies
Groundwater depletion is becoming a global problem with increasing populations and industrialization coupled with changing climate and hydrologic cycles. Deep groundwater sources are increasingly being considered for water supply sources as they are readily available on-site and are treated with minimum specific energy consumption. However, these deep groundwater sources are often high in total dissolved solids content requiring additional treatment. This chapter presents an overview and consideration for groundwater desalination. Potential environmental, technological, and management issues associated with desalination of deep groundwater reserves are discussed briefly. Finally, a decision framework tool to assess and determine the need for brackish groundwater desalination plants is presented.